Lymphoedema

Lymphoedema has two main types called primary and secondary. Primary lymphoedema is when someone has a faulty gene that is affecting the lymphatic system and its development. This type can appear at any age but on the whole it will usually start in early adulthood although some cases appear in early childhood. The secondary lymphoedema is when the lymphatic system gets an infection which making it very difficult for the lymph’s to drain any fluid away.  Get more information.

Throughout the whole of the body there are lots of lymph vessels. The Lymphatic system has two main functions which are to help fight infection and the emptying away of surplus fluid from tissue. If any of the vessels are blocked or they can’t drain the fluid away, then this is then called lymphoedema.

Primary lymphoedema causes:-

In the early stages of the developing embryo when the genes are developing, sometimes changes will occur that are known as a mutation. In the case of the lymphoedema, if a mutation occurs in the genes controlling the lymphatic system, then the defective gene results in it not being able to drain the fluid sufficiently causing the lymph system to be not as effective as it should be. The Primary type is normally hereditary but can miss generations with some babies not born with the condition.

Secondary lymphoedema causes:-

Secondary lymphoedema will appear and progress in people who have had no prior problems with their lymphatic system system. The secondary type of lymphoedemahas a variety of different origins. Below are some of these origins:-

Surgical treatment of cancer

Radiotherapy

Infections

Inflammation

Venous diseases

Obesity

Trauma and injury

Immobility

Here are four of the above lymphoedemaorigins in more detail.

Infections

Infections can be of the bacterial or parasitic kind. A bacterial infection called cellulitis is an infection of the layers that are deeper in the skin layers and found within the tissue under the skin. You will know if you have this form of infection as it presents with the localised area turning bright red,

feeling hot and appearing swollen. This will usually appear in the legs but is known to happen in other parts of the body. The parasitic infection can be caused by an infection called filariasis. This is an infection that is spread by blood feeding black flies or mosquitoes.

Inflammation

Lymphoedema can cause the inflammation of tissues making them appear swollen and red. Unfortunately the side effects of this can damage the lymphatic system on a permanent basis. If you suffer from such conditions as rheumatoid arthritis, then this can cause you to have lymphoedema too.

Venous diseases

This is where a person with varicose veins may suffer with lymphoedema. This is because of the poor or inadequate blood drainage that is happening, causing the pressure in the veins to be a lot higher than normal, resulting in more fluid entering into the tissue in the localised area and passing into the tissue spaces. Another venous disease that can give you a higher rate of getting lymphoedema is deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

Cancer treatment

Unfortunately if you get cancer cells in your body, then it is possible for them to spread into the lymphatic system. Treatment for the cancer may very well then include the removal of possibly infected pieces of the lymphatic system that could have cancerous cells.

Certain cancers have more risk of lymphoedema occurring. These cancers are:

Breast cancer

Cervical cancer

Vulval cancer

Prostate cancer

Penile cancer

Melanoma skin cancer

Signs and symptoms

Swelling (oedema) in all or part of the limb (arms or legs) is usually a sign that you may have lymphoedema. This swelling is often found in the legs or arms. The swelling will sometimes be more pronounced at the end of the day due to the person having done a lot of standing/walking. The excess fluid will have not been able to drain away and will have settled in the areas of ‘pooling’. Elevation of the limb will sometimes help to drain the fluid but unfortunately unless this swelling is treated properly, there is a chance that it can permanently become attached to the affected limb. Some other signs are:

Sudden tightness of clothing or jewellery feeling tight and uncomfortable

Redness of the skin in the localised area

Tightness or reduced flexibility in the joints

Slight puffiness of the skin

Asymmetrical appearance of the extremities

Decreased ability to see or feel the veins or tendons in the extremities

Fatigue (extreme tiredness)

Weight gain

Activities limited due to weight gain

Other symptoms in an affected body part can include:

An aching, heavy feeling

Difficulty with movement

Repeated skin infections

The skin becoming hard and tight

Folds developing in the skin

Wart-like growths developing on the skin

A leakage of fluid through the skin

Conclusion

Lymphoedema is the result of a diminished flow of the lymphatic system. It can be a genetic condition or caused by many other health factors. This can have a detrimental effect on the lymphatic system causing great damage. If the lymph nodes become damaged, then this in turn will have implications for the body’s immune system too, as the nodes are important for fighting infections that attack the body.